Recent studies on intrauterine insemination suggest that better results can be achieved when the IUI is combined with mild ovarian stimulation to produce more than one egg. In this case, medications are administered to stimulate the ovaries to produce several follicles and thus increase the chances of the sperm coming into contact with one of these eggs. However, no more than 3 ovarian follicles should be produced because this increases the chance of a multiple pregnancy which is one of the major complications of assisted reproduction.
The final maturation of the follicles and the eggs is carried out by administering the hCG hormone via injections. Thirty-six hours after the hormone has been administered, the egg is released from the follicle and everything is ready to perform the insemination.
The most commonly used medication is clomiphene citrate, which is administered orally in the form of a pill. Clomiphene citrate works by making the body believe that oestrogen levels are low, which indirectly stimulates the production of more eggs. The human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) is administered via an injection. This hormone induces the final maturations of the egg and stimulates the release of the egg during ovulation.
Sperm activation for Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
The cleaning and activation of the sperm is performed after the following procedures have been followed.
The final volume loaded in the catheter to be transferred in the intrauterine cavity should not be very high, since the semen volume that a uterus can receive is limited.
The catheter used is made of soft material so that the cervix is not injured and to facilitate entrance into the uterine cavity.
The sample is examined and processed in the laboratory by density gradient centrifugation while the materials used depend on the sperm parameters. About one hour after, the sample is ready to be loaded in the catheter and be delivered to the doctor to perform the procedure.